holidays, or, rather, important days propitious for offerings
and other activities, are: Kadjeng-klion, every 15 days;
Tumpak (sanistjaraklion), every 35 days; Budda-klion, every
42 days; Anggara-kasih (anggaraklion), every 35; days; and
Budda-wage, also every 35 days.
If one asks an ordinary Balinese for the number of days
in a month, the
answer is that it has 35 days, thus conflicting with the
knowledge that saka months have 29 or 3o days and that there
are no months in the wuku year. This confusion is perhaps
because ro months of 35 days total almost the correct duration
of one solar-lunar year- 35q days; then, ( months of 35
days make exactly 210 days: one wuku year. Furthermore,
there are many holidays, like the important Tumpak, recurring
every 35 days, or 6 times during a wuku year.
this is deduced that in the original Balinese calendar there
were probably only 10 months of 35 days and that the two
extra months of the saka were added later when the calendar
was modified and the Hindu calendar was adopted, leaving
memory of a month of 35 days. We havc seen that there are
only Balinese names for ten of the twelve months, and Dr.
Korn mentions that in Tenganan they say that the last two
months were given to them as a present by Begawan Seganin
Ening. Thus it is easily possible that the Balinese compromised
and divided their year of 210 days into 6 months of 35 days.
They do not make astronomical observations to calculate
the solar-lunar year, but use special tables and charts
called pengalihan bulan.
It is interesting that after cremation a deified ancestor
becomes a dews-yang, a word that bears a striking resemblance
to the term wayang, over which there is a controversy. The
wayang are the shadow-play puppets which are recognizedly
related to the ancestors. Other names for the ancestral
souls are pitara, kawitan, and m'pu wayangan, and the "
heaven " where the ancestors live is called langit gringsing
wayang " the flaming heaven of the wayang." The local gods,
also ancestors, are called Sanghyang, a word made of the
old relative pronoun sang and hyang, or yang, a native term
for divinity, from which the word wayang could easily be
derived. Dewa is a Sanskrit synonym of yang. and dewa-yang
could have become 'wa-yang.
following are among the most important Balinese Gods:
- The Sun, chief of the Balinese pantheon. The only Hindu
god actually worshipped in the temples.
GURU - The Supreme Teacher, master of Brahmanas. Most generally
identified with Siwa. Represented as a bearded hermit seated
on a lotus (padma). Batara Guru has four arms, two clasped
in attitude of prayer and the other two holding a rosary
on the right, a brush for swatting flies (petjut) on the
- Who is the fire itself (AGNI), and who as lord of cremation
is called PRADJAPATI. Brahma has no particular cult except
as " fire." Represented in Bali with only one head; the
deity with four faces, TJATUR MUKA, is, in the popular mind,
a deity in itself, not identified with Brahma.
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