villages in the least our going in and out of the temples,
we started visiting them systematically, looking for unusual
statues or reliefs, and although from the beginning we received
the impression that there were not two temples exactly alike,
we became aware that there were features common to all;
unlike the forbidding, sombre temples of other Oriental
countries, the Balinese temple is a gay, open-air affair;
one, two, or three open courtyards surrounded by a low wall,
each court leading into the next through more or less elaborate
stone gates, and with a number of empty sheds, pavilions,
and shrines in varied styles, the majority covered with
thatch, some with only one roof, others with as many as
eleven superimposed roofs like pagodas.
were no soot-blackened rooms filled
with incense smoke for mysterious rites performed in front
of great idols; as a matter of fact, there were no idols
at all worshipped in any of the hundreds of Balinese temples
we visited. In many there were ancient statues from former
times, together with many shapeless stones kept as amulets
by the community, which, because of their antiquity or because
they were found in extraordinary circumstances, came to
be regarded as gifts of the gods, or as their name (peturun)
indicates, as heirlooms from their ancestors. The gods are
invisible and impalpable and in all Bali there is not an
image of a Hindu deity worshipped for the sake of its representation.
Most often not even the priests in charge were aware of
the names of the divinities represented.
interest in temples grew when we tried to understand the
rules that dictated their intriguing design, but the first
attempts left us only more confused than before. Explanations
by the pemangkus, the temple-keepers, did not agree and
the discrepancies were often greater than the points of
agreement. With Spies I started into a more systematic search;
we went into a temple, sought the pemangku, and drew a plan
in which the names and purposes of each unit were indicated.
common features in them. From those that appeared most frequently
I set myself to the task of reconstructing one " ideal "
Most typical was the temple with two courtyards, the outer
Ground plan of a typical Balinese temple court called djaban,
" outside," and the other the dalam, the " inside." Entrance
into the first court was gained through the tjandi bentar,
the " split monument " or split gate ( , which was like
the two halves of a solid tower cut clean through the middle.
each half pushed apart to give access into the temple.
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